Issue #21 March 2019

What’s Wrong with Lewis Carroll’s Tortoise?

Taking Logical Validity as a Proposition Amongst Propositions

Logic and (Human) Belief

Thomas Morrison is a philosophy writer in Kansas City, Missouri. He currently teaches at Penn Valley Community College. His research interests are argumentative style and the relationship between intellect and imagination.

Works Cited


I am following Carroll’s exposition itself in construing logical consequence as a matter of truth (semantic consequence), and not provability (syntactic consequence).


A syllogism is a logical argument that proves from true premises a true conclusion on the basis of logical validity. Syllogism-focused logic begins with Aristotle’s Organon; the most common form being the categorical syllogism Barbara: “If all A’s are B’s and all B’s are C’s, then all A’s are C’s.” How we should understand logical validity is the focus of the present paper.


Achilles’ hands have already been tied since the idea of accepting logical validity. This will be my point below.


Aristotle says as much in the Prior Analytics, “A syllogism is discourse in which, certain things being stated, something other than what is stated follows of necessity from their being so. I mean by the last phrase that they produce a consequence, and by this, that no further term is required from without in order to make the consequence necessary” (Bk 1, 24b18–22).


This name was inspired by the work of Richard Lee at the University of Arkansas. If we wished to rephrase the argument it would be a Modus Ponnens: If things are equal to the same, then they are equal to each other, and the two sides of this Triangle are things that are equal to the same. Therefore, the two sides of this Triangle are equal to each other. Whether or not we should rephrase this argument is unimportant to this essay.


March 2019


What’s Wrong with Lewis Carroll’s Tortoise?

by Thomas Morrison

From Habitus to Habits: The Origin of Lifestyle Practices

by Tami Bulmash


by Stephen Hoffman

Deleuze’s “The Logic of Sense”, (Chapters 1 & 2)